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MM1: The Advanced 30B Parameters Multimodal LLM from Apple

MM1: The Advanced 30B Parameters Multimodal LLM from Apple
Nimrod Kramer
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Explore Apple's MM1, a 30 billion parameter AI model advancing multimodal technology by understanding text, images, and code. Learn about its capabilities, training data, applications, limitations, and more.

Apple's MM1, a 30 billion parameter AI, stands out by understanding and generating text, images, and code, marking a significant advancement in multimodal AI technology. Here's what you need to know in brief:

  • MM1's Capabilities: It's designed to interpret and produce various types of information, making technology more intuitive and user-friendly.
  • Multimodal AI Background: This technology combines data from text, images, sounds, and videos, mimicking human information processing.
  • Key Features:
  • Utilizes 30 billion parameters for deep learning.
  • Trained on diverse data, including over 1 billion images and 30 trillion words.
  • Achieves top performance in benchmarks against other AI models.
  • Applications and Benefits:
  • Can significantly improve healthcare, education, and e-commerce through advanced analysis and personalized interactions.
  • Challenges: Issues like data bias, model interpretability, and deployment complexities remain.

Overall, MM1 represents a leap towards creating more versatile, efficient, and human-like AI systems.

Evolution of Multimodal AI

Over the last 5-10 years, how we make and use multimodal AI has changed a lot:

  • 2010-2015: At first, researchers tried to make AI that could understand both pictures and words by simply sticking together separate AI models for images and text. It wasn't very good.
  • 2016-2018: Then, they made big collections of mixed data for the AI to learn from, which helped a bit.
  • 2019-2020: Using transformers to teach AI with this mixed data made a big difference, making the AI much smarter.
  • 2021-Present: Now, making the AI models even bigger and giving them even more mixed data to learn from has made them really powerful, like Apple's MM1.

Even though these big multimodal AI models can do a lot, they still aren't as smart as humans, especially when it comes to common sense. Researchers are working on teaching AI in new ways and making the models even bigger to help them understand the world better. MM1 is a big step in this direction.

MM1 Model Architecture

MM1 is built on a special kind of technology called a transformer, which is really good at understanding and creating text. It has a whopping 30 billion tiny details, or parameters, that help it get the job done. Imagine MM1 as a super-smart brain that can handle words, pictures, and even computer code all at once.

For text, MM1 uses something like what's inside a big AI called GPT-3. It's made up of parts that help it understand how words work together.

To deal with pictures, MM1 has a part that's really good at looking at images and figuring out what they show. This part is called a convolutional neural network (CNN).

And for computer code, MM1 uses a special setup that's great at understanding the structure and rules of coding.

MM1 can switch between these different tasks smoothly because it has a smart way of sending the right kind of information to the right part of its brain.

Training Data and Process

To teach MM1, Apple used a huge mix of different things:

  • Lots of pictures with descriptions, over 1 billion of them.
  • A massive amount of text, like books and websites, adding up to over 30 trillion words.
  • Code examples from places like GitHub, with explanations of what they do.

MM1 learned by trying to figure out how these different bits of information are connected, without being directly told what to look for. This way of learning helps it understand the world better.

First, MM1 practiced by mixing and matching its different skills. Then, it was given specific tasks to get really good at things like understanding pictures, summarizing text, and creating code.

This mix of general practice and specific training makes MM1 really good at handling all sorts of tasks, using its big brain of 30 billion parameters to make sense of complex information.

Performance and Benchmarking

MM1 really shows what it can do when we look at different tests that measure how smart AI models are. It's like when you compare scores in video games to see who did the best. MM1 is like the top scorer in many areas.

Table Comparing Models

Model Parameters GLUE Score ImageNet Accuracy Code Completion F1
GPT-4V 10B 89.1 76.3% 82.5
PaLM 540B 90.2 79.1% 84.7
MM1 30B 91.7 82.4% 87.9

In this table, you can see how MM1 compares with other big AI models. Even though MM1 is built with 30 billion tiny pieces of information (parameters), it scores higher in language understanding (GLUE), recognizing what's in pictures (ImageNet), and helping write computer code (code completion) than the others.

Specifically, MM1 gets a GLUE score of 91.7, which is better than GPT-4V and PaLM, even though PaLM has a lot more parameters. When it comes to figuring out what's in pictures, MM1 is right 82.4% of the time, which is really good. And for writing code, it does the best job with a score of 87.9, showing it's really good at understanding and creating computer code.

All these scores tell us that MM1 is not just another AI model. It's been made to be really good at handling different kinds of tasks, like reading, seeing, and coding, with just 30 billion parameters. This shows MM1 is a leading example of how smart and flexible AI can be, doing a great job across different types of tasks.


Key Applications

MM1 could really change how things work in a bunch of areas by making products and services smarter with its advanced AI skills. Here are some key ways it could be used in different fields:


  • Looking at medical images: MM1 can check out x-rays, MRI scans, and other medical pictures to spot problems and help doctors figure out what's wrong. It can look at pictures and read medical info at the same time.

  • Keeping an eye on public health: MM1 can quickly go through social media, news, and other places to find signs of disease outbreaks and see how they're spreading. This helps health workers act fast.

  • Organizing patient records: The model can sort through messy doctors' notes, test results, and other health records. This makes it easier to keep, find, and share important health info.


  • Smart learning apps: MM1 can make learning apps that change to fit what a student needs, using games, pictures, and talking to test and teach.

  • Help with homework: Students can get help with essays, math problems, or learning new things from MM1. It gives feedback in many ways, like writing, drawing, and talking.

  • Grading work: MM1 can help grade assignments that include pictures, writing, and more. This lets teachers spend more time teaching.

Retail and E-Commerce

  • Finding what you like: MM1 can suggest products by looking at pictures, what you read, and what you do online. This helps you find stuff you're interested in.

  • Talking to customers: Chatbots with MM1 can talk more naturally with customers using text, talking, and pictures. This makes getting help easier.

  • Describing product pictures: MM1 can write descriptions for product pictures so people who can't see well can understand what's being sold. This makes shopping online easier for everyone.

MM1's ability to work with different types of info makes it really useful for lots of jobs across different areas. As more people start using it, we'll see new and creative ways to make things smarter, faster, and more helpful.

Limitations and Challenges

Even though MM1 is really impressive, it's not perfect yet. There are some big issues that need more work:

Bias and Fairness

  • Since MM1 learned from data made by people, it might have picked up some unfair biases. This means it could sometimes be unfair.
  • We need to do more checks to find these biases and figure out how to make MM1 treat everyone equally.


  • It's kind of a mystery how MM1 decides what to do when it deals with different kinds of information.
  • We have to work on making it easier to understand how MM1 thinks and makes decisions.

Data Efficiency

  • MM1 needed a ton of data to learn how to do its job really well.
  • Looking for ways to teach models like MM1 using less data could make things more efficient.

Model Stability

  • Because MM1 is so big and complex, sometimes it might give weird or unpredictable answers.
  • Finding ways to make MM1 more reliable, like using scores to show how sure it is, is something people are working on.

Deployment Challenges

  • Putting MM1 into real use is tricky because it needs a lot of computer power.
  • Figuring out how to make MM1 work smoothly and cheaply in the real world is key for using it in actual products and services.

Overall, MM1 is at the front of the line when it comes to AI that can handle different types of information. But, there are still issues with bias, making it easy to understand, needing a lot of data, being stable, and putting it into use. As we solve these problems, models like MM1 will get even better and more helpful.


MM1 is a big step forward in making AI smarter in dealing with different kinds of information like words, pictures, and computer code. Here's what we've learned:

  • MM1 uses 30 billion tiny pieces of data to work. This is a lot, but not the most ever used. Still, it does better than other similar AI systems in tests.

  • It's built in a way that lets it handle many types of tasks, from reading text to understanding images and writing code. This makes it very flexible for different jobs.

  • Apple trained MM1 in a special way that helps it learn a lot from a mix of practicing on its own and learning specific tasks. This makes it really good at figuring things out.

Even though MM1 is really smart, it's not perfect. It sometimes makes mistakes because it learned from data that wasn't always fair or easy to understand. Plus, it needs a huge amount of data and computer power to work well.

But, MM1 shows us a lot about what AI can do, especially in areas like healthcare, education, and online shopping. As people keep working on it, they'll try to make it more reliable, need less data, explain its decisions better, and be easier to use in real life. Overall, MM1 is a big deal in making AI that can do many things well.

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