Explore a range of fun coding problems that cater to all levels, from beginners to pros. Enhance your problemsolving abilities and sharpen your logical thinking in programming.
Looking to boost your coding skills or prepare for job interviews? Dive into these fun coding problems that cater to all levels, from beginners to pros. You'll find a mix of challenges that will test and enhance your problemsolving abilities in programming. Whether you're new to coding or honing your skills, these problems will provide a comprehensive workout for your brain.
Key Highlights:

Basics for Beginners: Start with simple tasks like 'Hello World' variations, basic math problems, and converting minutes to seconds.

Intermediate Challenges: Tackle array rotation, the Two Sum problem, and exercises that enhance your string manipulation abilities.

Advanced Adventures: Dive into complex challenges like balanced binary tree checks, inorder successor in BSTs, and alien dictionary ordering.

ExpertLevel Enigmas: Push your limits with tasks involving distributed keyvalue stores, file compression with Huffman coding, and solving mazes with backtracking.

TechnologySpecific Challenges: Sharpen your skills in web development, data science, and DevOps with targeted exercises.
Dive into these coding problems to sharpen your logical thinking and problemsolving skills in a fun and challenging way.
Getting Started: What You Need to Know
Before you jump into coding challenges, it's smart to get a good grip on the basics of programming. Here are a few things you should know first:
Learn Programming Basics
Start with the fundamentals such as:

What variables are and the different types (like text, numbers, true or false values)

How to use basic math and compare things

How to make decisions in your code with if statements

How to repeat actions with loops

How to group code into functions

Understanding simple lists and collections
Pick a Language
Start with one programming language. Some easy ones for beginners include:

Python  really friendly for beginners and easy to read

JavaScript  great for making websites interactive

Java  used in a lot of backend development

C++  a bit more complex but great for understanding how computers work
Learn the basics like how to show messages, use variables, types of data, and how to make functions.
Understand the Problem
When you see a coding problem:

Read it well to know what it's asking

Think about special cases and limits

Plan what inputs go in and what should come out

Figure out the steps before coding
Use Online Resources
If you're stuck, look up help like:

The official guides for the programming language

Stack Overflow for specific questions

Online tutorials for more practice
Start Simple
Try easy problems first, then slowly move to harder ones:

Work with variables, join texts

Do basic math, comparisons

Go through lists

Make functions that give back results
Understanding the basics well will make tackling harder problems easier.
BeginnerFriendly Challenges
1. Hello World Variations
The first program most people learn in a new programming language is the "Hello World" program. It's a simple code that shows the message "Hello World" on your screen.
Here are some easy and fun ways to change up the Hello World program:
Try It in a Different Language

You can write "Hello World" in another language, like:

Spanish  "Hola Mundo"

French  "Bonjour le monde"

Japanese  "Kon'nichiwa sekai"
Make It About You
 Change "Hello World" to "Hello [Your Name]". Just replace [Your Name] with your actual name.
Say More Than Hello
 Add a new line with to say "Hello World" and then "Have a nice day!" right after.
Create a Picture
You can also use letters and symbols to draw something like:
********* *** * *
* * * * *** * *
* * * * ***** * *
* * * * * * *
* * * * * * *
* * * * * * *
* * * * * * *
********* *** * *
Do It Over and Over
 Write a loop in your code to print "Hello World" 10 times.
These ideas are just the start. You can try out different things and see what fun you can have with printing messages!
2. Sum of Two Numbers
Let's tackle a basic math problem that's perfect for beginners. Here's what you need to do:
The Problem
Your task is to write a simple program. This program should ask for two numbers, then show you the total of these numbers.
Example
Input:
5
10
Output:
15
Steps

Ask the user for two numbers.

Save these numbers in two spots, let's call them num1 and num2.

Add num1 and num2 together, and save this in a new spot called sum.

Show the user the sum.
Code
Here's a way to do this in Python:
num1 = int(input("Enter first number: "))
num2 = int(input("Enter second number: "))
sum = num1 + num2
print("The sum is:", sum)
And if you're using JavaScript, it looks like this:
let num1 = parseInt(prompt("Enter first number: "));
let num2 = parseInt(prompt("Enter second number: "));
let sum = num1 + num2;
console.log(`The sum is: ${sum}`);
Tips

Make sure to change the user's input into numbers before adding them up.

Show the result in a way that's easy for the user to understand.

You can also check if the user actually entered numbers.
This simple problem helps you practice getting information from the user, doing something with it, and then showing the result. It's a good step to get comfortable with before you dive into more complicated programming challenges!
3. Convert Minutes into Seconds
The Problem
Your job is to write a simple program that changes minutes into seconds. This means if someone tells you a number in minutes, your program will tell them what that number is in seconds.
Example
Input:
5
Output:
300
Steps

First, ask the person using your program for a number in minutes. Let's put this number in a spot called
minutes
. 
Since 1 minute is the same as 60 seconds, you just need to multiply the minutes by 60 to get the seconds.

Keep this answer in a new spot called
seconds
. 
Finally, tell the person how many seconds that is.
Code
Here's how you can do it in Python:
minutes = int(input("Enter number of minutes: "))
seconds = minutes * 60
print(minutes, "minutes is", seconds, "seconds")
And if you're using JavaScript, it looks like this:
let minutes = parseInt(prompt("Enter number of minutes: "));
let seconds = minutes * 60;
console.log(`${minutes} minutes is ${seconds} seconds`);
Tips

It's important to check if the minutes entered are a real number. This helps make sure your program works right.

When you share the result, make it clear, like saying "X minutes is Y seconds".
Learning to change one type of measurement to another is a useful skill in coding. It's a good way to get comfortable with basic math in programming and sets you up for more challenging tasks later on.
4. FizzBuzz
FizzBuzz is a wellknown problem often found in coding interviews. It's a simple way to check your understanding of loops and conditions. Let's break it down:
The Problem
You need to write a program that counts from 1 to 100. But, there's a twist:

For numbers that are multiples of 3, you should print "Fizz" instead.

For multiples of 5, print "Buzz".

And for numbers that are multiples of both 3 and 5, print "FizzBuzz".
Example Output
1
2
Fizz
4
Buzz
Fizz
7
8
Fizz
Buzz
11
Fizz
13
14
FizzBuzz
This pattern continues all the way to 100.
Steps

Create a loop that goes through numbers 1 to 100

Use the modulo operator (%) to check if a number is a multiple of 3, 5, or both

Depending on the result, print "Fizz", "Buzz", or "FizzBuzz"

If a number isn't a multiple of 3 or 5, just print the number itself
Code Example
Here's a simple way to do it in JavaScript:
for (let i = 1; i <= 100; i++) {
if (i % 15 == 0) {
console.log("FizzBuzz");
} else if (i % 3 == 0) {
console.log("Fizz");
} else if (i % 5 == 0) {
console.log("Buzz");
} else {
console.log(i);
}
}
And in Python, it looks like this:
for i in range(1, 101):
if i % 15 == 0:
print("FizzBuzz")
elif i % 3 == 0:
print("Fizz")
elif i % 5 == 0:
print("Buzz")
else:
print(i)
Tips

Remember to check for multiples of 15 first because it means the number is both a multiple of 3 and 5.

The modulo operator (%) helps you find out if there's any remainder. It's key for checking multiples.

Make sure to print the right word or number based on the check.
FizzBuzz is a fun and straightforward challenge that helps you get better at controlling the flow of your program and using basic math operations. It's perfect for beginners!
5. Palindrome Checker
A palindrome is a word or phrase that reads the same backward as forward. Examples include "racecar", "madam", and even phrases like "nurses run" when you ignore the spaces.
Checking if something is a palindrome is a cool coding task. It involves flipping a sequence around and comparing it to the original. This challenge is a good way to practice handling text (strings), using loops, and making decisions in your code.
Let's dive into making a tool that can tell us if a word is a palindrome!
The Problem
Your job is to write a program that can figure out if a given word is a palindrome. This means it should look the same whether you read it from the start or the end.
Examples
Input: racecar
Output: true
Input: hello
Output: false
Steps

First, get the word from the user.

Next, create a version of the word that's spelled backward.

Then, see if the backward word is the same as the original.

If they match, it means the word is a palindrome, so show "true".

If they don't match, show "false".
Code
Here's how you can check for palindromes in JavaScript:
function isPalindrome(word) {
// Make the word backward
let reversed = word.split("").reverse().join("");
// Check if they are the same
if (reversed === word) {
return true;
}
return false;
}
console.log(isPalindrome("racecar")); // true
console.log(isPalindrome("hello")); // false
And in Python:
def is_palindrome(word):
reversed_word = word[::1]
if reversed_word == word:
return True
return False
print(is_palindrome("racecar")) # True
print(is_palindrome("hello")) # False
Tips

Remember, the key here is to flip the word around and then compare. It's a simple yet effective way to practice coding basics.

This task lets you work with strings and understand how to manipulate them, which is a valuable skill in programming.
6. Find the Longest Word
This coding challenge is all about working with words in a sentence. It's a good exercise to get better at handling text.
The Problem
Your task is to write a function that looks at a sentence and figures out which word is the longest. Then, it tells you how many letters that word has.
Example Input
"The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog"
Example Output
6
(because "jumped" is the longest word)
Steps to Solve

Break the sentence into words

Go through each word, keeping track of the longest one you find

Share the number of letters in the longest word
Solution in JavaScript
function findLongestWord(sentence) {
let words = sentence.split(' ');
let longest = 0;
for (let word of words) {
if (word.length > longest) {
longest = word.length;
}
}
return longest;
}
Tips

Remember to think about special cases, like if there are no words or just one

You can use a loop or other methods like
.reduce()
to find the answer 
This challenge is a good chance to practice basic programming skills and learn how to work with strings
Finding the longest word is a straightforward task that helps you get used to manipulating text and understanding simple algorithms. It's a great stepping stone to more complex challenges.
7. Sudoku Solver
Let's talk about how to make a program that can solve Sudoku puzzles. This is a cool way to get better at problemsolving and understanding how to use algorithms.
The Problem
You have a Sudoku board that's partly filled in. Your goal is to complete the puzzle by filling in the empty spots.
Understanding Sudoku Rules

The board is 9x9 and split into 9 smaller 3x3 squares

Each row, column, and 3x3 square must have the numbers 19, with no repeats
Steps to Solve

Start with a Sudoku board that has some numbers already in place

Create a function to make sure a number fits in a spot without breaking the rules

Use a method called backtracking to fill in numbers. This means you try options until you find the right one

Keep going until all spots are filled
Backtracking Algorithm
This method involves trying different numbers in empty spots:

Pick an empty spot

Put in a number from 19 that fits

Move to the next spot and repeat

If you get stuck, go back and try a different number
Code Example
Here's a simple way to solve Sudoku in Python using backtracking:
def is_valid(board, row, col, num):
# Check row
for x in range(9):
if board[row][x] == num:
return False
# Check column
for x in range(9):
if board[x][col] == num:
return False
# Check 3x3 square
startRow = row  row % 3
startCol = col  col % 3
for r in range(3):
for c in range(3):
if board[startRow + r][startCol + c] == num:
return False
return True
def solve(board):
for row in range(9):
for col in range(9):
if board[row][col] == 0:
for num in range(1, 10):
if is_valid(board, row, col, num):
board[row][col] = num
if solve(board):
return True
board[row][col] = 0
return False
return True
print(solve(board))
This code tries all the numbers that could fit until the puzzle is solved!
Tips

Picture the board to make solving easier

Use helper functions for rule checking

Keep your code clean and easy to read

Be ready for puzzles that can't be solved or have weird inputs
Solving Sudoku is a great way to work on your coding skills, especially with logic and algorithms!
8. Binary Search Trees
Binary search trees are a cool way to sort and find stuff quickly. Let's dive into some coding challenges that will help you get the hang of using binary search trees!
The Problem
Your mission is to create functions that let you add, look for, and go through binary search trees. These tasks will help you understand how these trees work.
Key Things to Know

Each spot in the tree holds a value, and these spots are linked from top to bottom

The numbers on the left side are always smaller than their parent

The numbers on the right are always bigger

Searching is super fast, taking less time as the tree grows
Fun Challenges
1. Adding Values

Make a function that adds new numbers to the tree, keeping everything in order

Think about what to do if you add the same number twice or if the tree is empty
2. Looking for Values

Write a function to check if a certain number is in the tree

It should say 'true' if the number is there, and 'false' if not

Try to make the search as quick as possible
3. Walking Through the Tree

Show the numbers in the tree using different methods like preorder, inorder, and postorder

Get to know the differences between these methods
4. How Tall is the Tree?

Figure out the tree's height (the longest path from top to bottom)

Find out the deepest part of the tree
5. Is the Tree Balanced?

See if the tree is balanced, meaning the heights of the left and right sides aren't too different

Say 'true' if it's balanced and 'false' if not
Tips for Solving

Picture the tree in your mind to see how the numbers link up

Break down the problems into smaller parts

Try your solutions with different numbers to see what happens

Learn the usual ways to go through a tree
Working with binary trees is a great way to boost your coding skills. These challenges are a fun way to learn about an important part of coding!
9. Efficient Prime Number Functions
Prime numbers are special numbers that can only be divided evenly by 1 and themselves. Some examples are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, and so on. Knowing how to work with prime numbers is really useful, especially in fields like computer security and coding.
Here are some cool coding challenges to help you practice working with prime numbers in a smart way:
Basic Prime Checker

Write a function that checks if a number is prime. It should say 'true' if the number is prime and 'false' if it's not.

Make it faster by not checking every even number after 2.
Prime Number Generator

Create a function that gives you prime numbers one at a time, each time you ask for one.

Try to see how many primes you can get before it starts taking too long!
Sieve of Eratosthenes

Use the Sieve of Eratosthenes method to quickly find prime numbers. This method filters out nonprime numbers from a list, leaving only the primes.

It's a neat way to find a lot of primes fast.
Largest Prime Factor Finder
 Make a function that finds the biggest prime factor of a number. This means breaking the number into smaller parts until you find the biggest prime number among them.
Next Prime Number Finder
 Create a function that finds the next prime number that's bigger than a number you give it. This is handy for things like creating secure keys.
Tips

Remember to think about unusual cases, like when the number is negative or is 0 or 1.

Use division and factor checking to see if a number is prime.

Try using memoization, which is a way to remember previous results, to make your code run faster.

Test how fast your functions are to find the quickest method!
Playing around with prime numbers is a great way to get better at coding. These challenges help you think about how to solve problems efficiently.
10. Writing a Program to Play a Perfect Game of TicTacToe
Tictactoe is a simple game we all know. The idea of making a computer program that can play tictactoe without ever losing is an interesting challenge!
The Problem
Your task is to create a program that always plays tictactoe to at least a draw. The program needs to be smart enough to make its moves, see where the human player has gone, and decide the best move to make next.
Understanding the Rules

The game is played on a 3x3 grid.

Players take turns putting their mark (X or O) in an empty space.

The first player to line up three of their marks in a row, column, or diagonal wins.
Steps to Solve

Create a 3x3 grid to represent the game board.

Notice when the human player makes a move.

Program how the computer decides its move:

Try to win on the next move.

If it can't win, block the other player from winning.

Otherwise, choose the best available spot.

Keep an eye on the board to help make decisions.

Figure out when someone wins or if it's a tie.
Code Example
Here's a basic Python example for a tictactoe game:
# This is a simple version of the board and checking wins
def check_win(board):
# Look at possible winning lines
for combo in [[0,1,2], [3,4,5], [6,7,8], # Rows
[0,3,6], [1,4,7], [2,5,8], # Columns
[0,4,8], [2,4,6]]: # Diagonals
if board[combo[0]] == board[combo[1]] == board[combo[2]] != " ":
return board[combo[0]]
return None
def get_best_move(board, player):
# Check if the computer can win
for move in range(9):
temp = board[:]
if temp[move] == " ":
temp[move] = "X"
if check_win(temp) == "X":
return move
# Stop the other player from winning
for move in range(9):
temp = board[:]
if temp[move] == " ":
temp[move] = "O"
if check_win(temp) == "O":
return move
# Choose the best spot left
return optimal_move(board)
# More code would go here...
This code shows the basics of making decisions and playing smartly. With the right steps, the computer can always play well!
Tips

Think about all the possible ways the game can go.

Break the problem down into smaller parts to make it easier.

Try playing against your program to see how well it does.
Making a computer play tictactoe perfectly is a great way to practice coding. It's fun and challenging, so why not give it a shot?
11. Topological Sort Implementation
Topological sort is a way to organize the steps or tasks in a project when some steps depend on others. Imagine you're trying to make breakfast. You can't eat your toast until you've toasted your bread, and you can't toast your bread until you've got the bread out of the pantry. Topological sort helps you list out these steps in the right order.
The Problem
You have a list of tasks and the order they need to be done in. Your job is to arrange these tasks so that each task is done before the ones that depend on it.
Understanding Topological Sort

It's like making a todo list for a project.

Important points:

You have tasks (nodes) and dependencies (edges).

Start with tasks that don't depend on anything else.

Keep going until all tasks are on your list.

You'll end up with a list that makes sure you do everything in the right order.
Steps

Use a list to show what tasks depend on each other.

Make an empty list for your final order of tasks.

Create a helper function to visit each task:

Mark it as in process.

Visit all the tasks that need to be done before this one.

Add this task to your final list.

Mark it as done.

Start with tasks that don't have any prerequisites.
Code Example
Here's a simple way to do it in Python:
def topological_sort(graph):
result = []
visited = set()
def visit(node):
if node in visited:
return
visited.add(node)
for child in graph[node]:
visit(child)
result.append(node)
for node in graph:
if node not in visited:
visit(node)
return result[::1]
print(topological_sort({'A': ['B','C'], 'B': ['D'], 'C': ['D'], 'D': []}))
# This will print ['D', 'B', 'C', 'A']
This code goes through each task, making sure all its prerequisites are done first, before adding it to the final list. It's a neat way to organize tasks to make sure everything gets done in the right order.
12. Randomize Line Sequence in a File
Let's dive into a coding task that's all about mixing up the lines in a text file. This can be handy when you need to shuffle data around for tests or just want to change the order of things for fun.
The Problem
Imagine you have a text file filled with lines of text. Your challenge is to write a program that scrambles these lines into a random order.
Example File
First line
Second line
Third line
Fourth line
Fifth line
Steps

Open the file to get all the lines inside it

Put these lines into a list

Mix up the list so the order of the lines is random

Save these mixedup lines into a new file
Code Solution
Here's how you can do this in Python:
import random
with open('input.txt') as f:
lines = f.readlines()
random.shuffle(lines)
with open('output.txt', 'w') as f:
f.writelines(lines)
And if you're using JavaScript:
const fs = require('fs');
let lines = fs.readFileSync('input.txt').toString().split('');
lines.sort(() => Math.random()  0.5);
fs.writeFileSync('output.txt', lines.join(''));
Tips

Make sure to check for any errors when opening or saving files

It's important to truly shuffle the lines for a random result

Try this with files of various sizes to see how it works
Shuffling the order of lines in a file is a simple yet effective way to work with data differently. It's a great exercise for practicing basic coding skills.
Intermediate Challenges
Here are some coding challenges that are a bit more advanced. These will make you think harder and help you become better at solving problems. If you're ready to step up from the basics, these are for you.
1. Array Rotation
This challenge is about moving numbers around in a list. It's useful for rearranging data.
The Problem
You have a list of numbers. You need to move the numbers to the right by a certain amount. The user will tell you how many times.
Example:
Input list: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
Shifts: 2
Output list: [4, 5, 1, 2, 3]
Steps to Solve

Get the list and the number of shifts.

Copy the original list.

Use a loop to move values from the start to the end, as many times as needed.

Return the new list.
Code
In JavaScript:
function rotateArray(arr, shifts) {
let rotated = [...arr];
for (let i = 0; i < shifts; i++) {
rotated.push(rotated.shift());
}
return rotated;
}
console.log(rotateArray([1, 2, 3, 4, 5], 2)); // [4, 5, 1, 2, 3]
In Python:
def rotate_array(arr, shifts):
rotated = arr[:]
for _ in range(shifts):
rotated.append(rotated.pop(0))
return rotated
print(rotate_array([1,2,3,4,5], 2)) # [4, 5, 1, 2, 3]
2. Two Sum Problem
The Two Sum problem is a classic. It's great for working on your problemsolving skills.
The Problem
You have a list of numbers and a target sum. Find two numbers that add up to the target and return their positions.
Example:
array: [2, 5, 7, 9]
target: 11
output: [0, 2]
# Because array[0] + array[2] equals 11
Steps to Solve

Go through the list.

For each number, figure out what you need to add to it to get the target.

See if that number is also in the list.

If yes, return their positions.
Code Examples
JavaScript:
function twoSum(arr, target) {
for (let i = 0; i < arr.length; i++) {
let diff = target  arr[i];
if (arr.includes(diff) && arr.indexOf(diff) != i) {
return [i, arr.indexOf(diff)];
}
}
}
let result = twoSum([2, 5, 7, 9], 11);
console.log(result); // [0, 2]
Python:
def two_sum(arr, target):
for i in range(len(arr)):
diff = target  arr[i]
if diff in arr and arr.index(diff) != i:
return [i, arr.index(diff)]
print(two_sum([2,5,7,9], 11)) # [0, 2]
3. Integer to Roman Numeral Converter
Changing numbers into Roman numerals is a fun string challenge.
The Problem
Turn a whole number into a Roman numeral.
Examples:
5 > V
39 > XXXIX
1999 > MCMXCIX
Understanding Roman Numerals

I = 1

V = 5

X = 10

L = 50

C = 100

D = 500

M = 1000
Steps to Solve

Split the number into thousands, hundreds, tens, and ones.

Change each part into Roman symbols.

Follow subtraction rules (like 4 is IV, not IIII).
Code
In Python:
def int_to_roman(num):
values = [1000, 900, 500, 400, 100, 90, 50, 40, 10, 9, 5, 4, 1]
numerals = ["M","CM","D","CD","C","XC","L","XL","X","IX","V","IV","I"]
roman = ''
i = 0
while num > 0:
if values[i] <= num:
num = values[i]
roman += numerals[i]
else:
i += 1
return roman
print(int_to_roman(5)) # V
print(int_to_roman(39)) # XXXIX
4. Validating Email Addresses
Checking if an email address is valid is a useful skill.
The Problem
Make sure an email address follows these rules:

Has one @ symbol

The part before @ doesn't start or end with . or 

The part after @ ends in .com, .net, or .org
If it does, say 'Valid'. If not, say 'Invalid'.
Examples
"test@example.com" > "Valid"
"test@example.c" > "Invalid"
"test@example.com" > "Invalid"
Steps

Split the email by @.

Check the first part for . or  at the start or end.

Make sure the second part ends in .com, .net, or .org.

If all good, return "Valid".
Code
In JavaScript:
function validateEmail(email) {
let parts = email.split("@");
if (parts[0].startsWith(".") 
parts[0].startsWith("") 
parts[0].length < 1) {
return "Invalid";
}
let domain = parts[1];
if (domain.length < 3 
!domain.endsWith(".com") &&
!domain.endsWith(".net") &&
!domain.endsWith(".org")) {
return "Invalid";
}
return "Valid";
}
let result1 = validateEmail("test@example.com"); // Valid
let result2 = validateEmail("test@example.c"); // Invalid
5. Pyramid Pattern Printing
Printing pyramid patterns is a fun way to practice loops.
The Problem
Create a half pyramid of stars based on the number of rows.
Example:
Rows: 5
Output:
*
**
***
****
Steps

Get the number of rows.

Use loops to add stars for each row.

Print each row.
Code
In Python:
N = int(input("Enter number of rows: "))
for i in range(1, N+1):
row = ""
for j in range(1, i+1):
row += "* "
print(row.center(2*N))
In JavaScript:
let N = parseInt(prompt("Enter number of rows: "));
let row = "";
for (let i = 1; i <= N; i++) {
row = "";
for (let j = 1; j <= i; j++) {
row += "* ";
}
console.log(row.padStart(2*N));
}
6. Find Missing Number in Array
Finding a missing number in a list is a good brain teaser.
The Problem
You have an unsorted list from 1 to 100, but one number is missing. Find it.
Example:
Input: [2, 5, 1, 4, 9, 6, 3, 7, 10, 8]
Missing number: 11
Steps to Solve

Sort the list.

Go through it and look for a gap in the sequence.

If you find a gap, the missing number is the one that should be there.
Code
In JavaScript:
function missingNum(arr) {
arr.sort((a, b) => a  b);
for (let i = 0; i < arr.length; i++) {
if (arr[i+1]  arr[i] != 1) {
return arr[i] + 1;
}
}
}
let result = missingNum([2, 5, 1, 4, 9, 6, 3, 7, 10, 8]);
console.log(result); // 11
In Python:
def missing_num(arr):
arr.sort()
for i in range(len(arr)1):
if arr[i+1]  arr[i] != 1:
return arr[i] + 1
print(missing_num([2, 5, 1, 4, 9, 6, 3, 7, 10, 8])) # 11
Sorting the list helps you see where the sequence breaks.
I hope these challenges give you a fun way to practice your coding. Try them out and see how you do.
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Advanced Challenges
Here are some harder coding problems for those looking to push their skills further:
Balanced Binary Tree Checker

We need to write a function that checks if a binary tree is balanced.

A tree is balanced if the heights of the left and right sides don't differ by more than one for all nodes.
InOrder Successor in a Binary Search Tree

Your job is to write a function that finds the next node in order for a given node in a binary search tree.

Think of it as finding the next number in line that comes after the given one.
Lowest Common Ancestor in a Binary Tree

Find the lowest common ancestor of two nodes in a binary tree.

This is the furthest back node where both nodes are still part of its "family".
Alien Dictionary Ordering

Imagine you have a dictionary from an alien language, but the words are sorted like in English.

Your task is to figure out the order of letters in the alien language and write it down as a string.
Regular Expression Matcher

Write a function that checks if a string matches a given pattern.

The pattern can include '.' and '*' which are special symbols with their own rules.
Serialize and Deserialize Binary Trees

You need to create functions that can turn a binary tree into a string and then turn that string back into a tree.

This process is about converting the tree into a format that can be saved or shared.
Tackling these advanced challenges is a fantastic way to get better at coding. Break them into smaller parts and test your work. Remember, practice makes perfect, so keep at it!
ExpertLevel Enigmas
These advanced coding challenges are tough but exciting. They'll really make you think and push your coding abilities to the limit. Let's dive into some puzzles that involve tricky algorithms and creative thinking.
Finding the Kth Largest Element
Imagine you have a list of numbers that's all mixed up, and you need to find the kth biggest number in it.
Here are some ways to tackle this:

You could sort the list and then pick the kth number from the end.

Use a special list called a minheap that keeps track of the biggest numbers you've seen so far.

Try the Quickselect method, which is a bit like sorting but you only focus on one part of the list.
Try this on big lists of numbers and think about how fast your solution is and how much space it uses.
Shortest Remaining Time First Scheduling
This is about making a plan for tasks that need computer time. You get information like when each task arrives and how long it needs.
Your job is to:

Keep tasks in order based on how much time they need to finish.

Pick the task with the least time left when the computer is free.

If a more important task comes in, switch to it.
Try to make the wait time and the total time tasks take as short as possible.
Solving a Maze with Backtracking
Create a program that can find its way out of a maze using a method called backtracking. Think of the maze as a big grid with walls and open paths.
The key ideas are:

Mark places you've been to avoid going in circles.

Have a clear stopping point for the program.

Remember paths you've tried so you don't repeat them.
You can also try to show the path, make the maze harder or easier, or find faster ways to solve it.
Compressing Files with Huffman Coding
This is about making files smaller using a method called Huffman coding. It looks at how often characters appear and creates a special tree to represent them in a shorter way.
Here's how:

Count how often each character appears.

Merge the least common characters using a priority queue.

Walk through the tree to assign short codes to each character.

Use these codes to write a smaller version of the file.
Think about how you could use this for different types of files, not just text.
Simulating a Distributed KeyValue Store
Try building a system that stores data across many computers. It should handle dividing data, copying it for safety, and keeping everything up to date.
Consider:

How to split data and move it around when needed.

Choosing leaders and agreeing on data values.

Finding and fixing failures.

Speeding things up with caching and fixing mistakes.

Adjusting how strict you are with making sure data is the same everywhere.
This challenge covers a lot of ideas about how computers work together, like CAP theorem and gossip protocols.
These tough challenges are great for learning. Break them into smaller parts, test everything carefully, and keep trying. Solving these will help you get really good at solving complex problems and designing systems.
TechnologySpecific Challenges
In this part, we're going to talk about coding exercises that focus on certain areas of technology. These tasks are all about practicing and getting better at specific tech skills like making websites, working with data, or managing servers.
Web Development
HTML/CSS

Try making a webpage that looks good on any device using Flexbox or CSS Grid

Build a signup form that checks the info right on the page

Create a photo gallery where you can smoothly scroll through images
JavaScript

Make a basic calculator with buttons you can click

Set up a timer that counts down to a specific event

Develop an app that shows the weather for your location
React

Build a task list app where you can add, edit, and delete items

Create a quiz game that gets questions from an online source

Make a messaging app where you can chat in real time
Node.js

Set up a simple web server that says "Hello World"

Make an API that can handle creating, reading, updating, and deleting data

Develop an app that stores form submissions in a database
Data Science & Analysis
Python

Use charts to show data with Matplotlib

Try to guess house prices with machine learning

Use a neural network to tell if a picture is of a cat or a dog
R

Analyze survey data with graphs and dashboards

Predict future sales from past data

Understand what customers feel by analyzing text
SQL

Use queries to sort, summarize, and organize data

Make views and stored procedures to make tasks easier

Find and fix slow database queries
DevOps
Linux

Use Bash scripts to check on disk space and memory

Manage users, groups, and permissions

Set up a web server with Linux, Nginx, MySQL, and PHP
Docker

Put an app into a container and run it on your computer

Upload your custom app images to Docker Hub

Start a complex app with many parts using Docker Compose
Kubernetes

Run containers on a bunch of machines

Manage settings, secrets, and storage

Keep an eye on your apps and servers
Starting with simple tasks and gradually taking on more challenging ones is a good way to learn. The main thing is to keep practicing.
Conclusion
Working on coding problems is a great way to get better at solving tricky questions, learn about different ways to solve problems, and even get ready for job interviews. Starting with simple puzzles and then trying harder ones can help you feel more confident and understand programming better.
Here are some important points:

Try solving different coding problems often to keep your skills sharp. Try a mix of easy and hard problems.

Break big problems into smaller pieces. Go through examples step by step.

Practice more on websites that offer coding challenges. Many of these sites have discussion boards where you can learn from others.

Focus on getting really good at basic stuff like loops, how to use lists, and learning common problemsolving steps. These basics are super important.

If you find some problems tough, don't give up. Keep trying and learn from what went wrong.

After you solve a problem, look at other solutions. See how they compare to yours.

Use what you learn in coding challenges on your own projects. This is a good way to make sure you really understand it.

Make a regular schedule for practicing coding. Sticking to it is key.
Getting really good at coding problems takes time and a lot of practice. Be patient with yourself, think hard about both what went well and what didn't, and keep going. Happy coding!
Related Questions
What is the hardest code to learn?
Malbolge is known for being super hard to learn because it's made to be confusing on purpose. It uses a unique kind of notation and its rules are really complex. Getting good at Malbolge takes a lot of patience and hard work.
What is the most complex code ever written?
The systems used by the Social Security Administration to figure out retirement benefits and track earnings over a lifetime are super complex. They're written in Cobol and have more than 60 million lines of code that have been added over many years. Updating or fixing these systems is a big challenge because of how complicated they are.
What are some of the difficulties with codes?
When learning or teaching coding, some common challenges include:

Keeping students interested and motivated

Teaching both the coding language and how to solve problems

Helping students deal with failure and frustration

Balancing how much time is spent staring at screens
Good coding education helps students learn the technical stuff while also applying it to real life and building other important skills.
What are the best code challenge sites?
Here are some great websites for coding challenges:

HackerRank  Offers challenges of different levels and some sponsored by companies

LeetCode  Great for preparing for technical job interviews with a community to discuss solutions

Codewars  A fun, gamelike site that's good for beginners to learn various programming languages

HackerEarth  Hosts competitions and challenges for hiring

Codility  Used by companies to test candidates with coding tasks
The best website for you depends on what you're looking to achieve, your skill level, and what kind of programming you're interested in.